Additions and corrections:

International Conference on the History of Cartography

20th International Conference on the History of Cartography
June 15-20, 2003 — Cambridge, Mass., and Portland, Maine

The conference was held in Memorial Hall, Harvard University (15-17 June) and in the Holiday Inn by the Bay, Portland (18-20 June). Pre-conference meetings of the International Society of Curators of Early Maps (ISCEM) and of the standing commissions on Education and the History of Cartography of the International Cartographic Association (ICA) were held at Memorial Hall on 14 June. The main coordinators were David Cobb (Harvard Map Collection, Harvard University), and Yolanda Theunissen and Matthew Edney (both of the Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education, University of Southern Maine). A total of 321 people attended the conference, with 63 accompanying persons.

Six exhibitions were prepared in conjunction with the conference:

  1. "Cartographic Treasures at Harvard," at Harvard Map Collection and Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University
  2. "Treasures of the Boston Public Library Map Center," at Boston Public Library
  3. "Mapping the Republic: Conflicting Concepts of the Territory and Character of the USA, 1790-1900," at the Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education, University of Southern Maine (on-line as
  4. "Heavens on Earth," at the Southworth Planetarium, University of Southern Maine
  5. "The Shape of Maine: Drawing Boundaries, Mapping History," at the Gallery of Maine History, Maine Historical Society
  6. "Mapping Maine: Four Contemporary Views," at the Portland Museum of Art
Papers and entire sessions were solicited under five themes: a) cartography, states, and empires; b) cartographic literacy and culture; c) cartography and commerce; d) mapping the Americas; and, e) any other topic in the history of cartography. However, many papers fell under more than one theme, so the program committee did not organize sessions by theme.

Three workshops were also prepared (listed here with their organizers):

  1. Knowles, Anne Kelly. Historical Maps and Geographical Information Systems
  2. Godlewska, Anne. Historical Maps and the Internet
  3. Theunissen, Yolanda. Integrating Historical Maps Into Primary Education (K-12, Ages 5-18)
A total of 42 posters and 80 papers were presented. Biographical statements for each presenter, and abstracts of all papers (in both English and French), were provided in a printed program. Seven of the paper sessions were specially organized sessions (listed here with their organizers):
  1. Brummett, Palmira. Reading Ottoman Maps: Text, Context, and Cultural Understanding (papers 37, 35, and 8)
  2. Carey, Ryan J. Paper Landscapes: Cartography, Capital, and the State (papers 10, 29, and 20)
  3. Curnow, Wystan, and Ruth Watson. Art and Cartography: Three Contemporary Perspectives (papers 76, 22, and 54)
  4. Dym, Jordana. Missing Elements: Mapping the Americas, 1500-1900 (papers 34, 46, and 27)
  5. Kivelson, Valerie A. Maps, States, and Empires in Early Modern Eurasia (papers 78, D, and 47)
  6. Padrón, Ricardo. Mapping with Words: Cartography and Verbal Discourse in Early Modern Europe (papers 77, 57, 67, and 73)
  7. Ross, Elizabeth. Cartography and Pictorial Representation of Topography in Art History (papers 64, 65, and 45)

Papers 20th ICHC

  1. Akerman, James. Mapping a Nation on Rails: Railroad Cartography and American Identity, 1865-1941
  2. Appelt, Ursula. Map, Manual, and Merchant: Plancius, Blundeville, and the Anglo-Dutch Race for the Spice Islands
  3. Azaryahu, Maoz, and Arnon Golan. Renaming the Landscape: The Formation of the Hebrew Map of Israel (The paper was presented by Arnon Golan)
  4. Barber, Peter. Old Mentalities in a New World: The Printed Map Collection of Ferdinand Columbus
  5. Borges, Maria Eliza Linhares. L'Atlas de l'Empire du Brésil (1868): cartes, imagerie et conscience nationale (*)
  6. Brink, Paul van den. Geopoliticizing Map Exhibitions: The Case of the Royal Netherlands Geographical Society (1873-1940)
  7. Brückner, Martin. The National Map as Logo and Constitutive Logos in the United States
  8. Brummett, Palmira. Ottoman Cartoon Maps: Imagining Space, Identity, and Nation in the Istanbul Popular Press, 1908-1911
  9. Camino, Mercedes Maroto. War Souvenirs: Maps from Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Old Yugoslavia (1992-1997)
  10. Carey, Ryan J. From Paper Landscapes to Property Rights: Geographic Information and the Vocabulary of Capital
  11. Carhart, George S. The Significance of Craft Practices for Early Modern Map Production
  12. Carrera, Magali M. Mapping Citizenship in Nineteenth-Century Mexico: Antonio Garcías Cubas's Carta etnográfica
  13. Castner, Catherine J. Picturing Italy in Words: Latin Geographical Treatises of the Late Medieval and Early Modern Periods
  14. Cattaneo, Angelo. A Forgotten Mid-Fifteenth Century Venetian Manuscript Codex with 62 Maps: The First Vernacular Adaptation of Ptolemy's Geography
  15. Chester, Lucy. Cartographic Competition: Indo-Pakistani Maps of Kashmir
  16. Cloud, John. Layered Truths: The Political Evolution of Geographic Integration by Overlay
  17. Cook, Karen Severud. Daniel Defoe's The Consolidator (1705): An Eyewitness Account of Early Thematic Mapping
  18. Cosgrove, Denis. Local Landscape, Global Visions: Popular Mapping and Mass Culture in Twentieth-Century America
  19. Craib, Raymond B. Mapping Mexico From Below (or, peasants are also protagonists in the history of cartography)
  20. Crampton, Jeremy W. The 'Double' Invention of Thematic Mapping and Governmental Rationality
  21. Culp, Robert. Maps, Metaphors, and Historical Projection: Imagining China's Nation-Space during the Republican Period
  22. Curnow, Wystan. The World as a Singular System: Globalization and the Margins of Discourse
  23. Dando, Christina. 'Happy Motoring!': Selling Maps and Geographic Information to Twentieth-Century American Women
  24. Doherty, J. Keith. Narrative, Map Making, and Roman Landscape Painting
  25. Donovan, William M. The Missing Maps of Colonial Brazil
  26. Dorvidal, Jérôme. Simples, simplistes ... mais terriblement convaincantes: représentations spatiales et cartographiques de la menace atomique dans la propagande antinucléaire australienne (The paper was read by Jean-François Palomino in the absence of the author)
  27. Dym, Jordana. 'Imperfectly Known' or 'More Calculated to Mislead than Inform'? Travelers' Cartography of Central America, 1821-1900
  28. Ehrenberg, Ralph E. Rand McNally and Aviation Cartography: Changing Markets and Marketing Strategies
  29. Epstein, Earl. Concepts of Land and of Land Information
  30. Espenhorst, Jürgen. A German Contribution to Globalization in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
  31. Ferrand de Almeida, André, and João Carlos Garcia. Jesuit Cartography of the Amazon Basin in the Eighteenth Century (The paper was presented by André Ferrand de Almeida)
  32. Fletcher, David. The Cartographic Subjugation of the Local State? The Ordnance Survey in Nineteenth-Century England
  33. Fôret, Philippe. Who Mapped Tibet? A Question of Authority and Imagination
  34. Foroughi, Andrea. A Partial Picture: (Mis)Representations on Colonial North American Maps
  35. Fortna, Benjamin C. Good News and Bad News: Change in the School Maps of the Late Ottoman Empire
  36. Gavish, Dov. Did the Ottomans Map Palestine?
  37. Goodrich, Thomas. Melding Text and Maps: The Innovative 'Kitab-2 Bahriye' of Piri Reis
  38. Goren, Haim. Pilgrimage, Tapestries, and Cartography: Sixteenth-Century Gobelins Commemorating a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land (*)
  39. Gresle-Pouligny, Dominique. L'image cartographiée de Mexico-Tenochtitlan, lieu d'ici, lieu de nulle part. Pour en finir avec l'utopie
  40. Hassner, Ron E. Names Without Places: How Map makers and Pilgrims Invent Sacred Space
  41. Hessler, John W. John Snyder and the Development of the Mercator Space Oblique Projection (The paper was read by Ron Grim in the absence of the author.)
  42. Jaffee, David. James Wilson and the Village Enlightenment: Cartography and Culture in the Rural United States, 1790-1840
  43. Johnson, Ann. Engineering the Nation: The Role of Surveying in Nineteenth-Century Engineering Culture
  44. Kanas, Nick. Early American Contributions to Celestial Cartography
  45. Kelsey, Robin. Mapping Rhetoric in American Survey Report Illustration, 1838-1861
  46. Kimaid, Michael. 'The Mississippi was never designed as the western boundary of the American empire': Cartographic Challenges to Imperial Authority in North America
  47. Kivelson, Valerie A. 'Myriad, Countless Foreigners': Siberia's Human Geography and Maps of the Russian Empire
  48. Komedchikov, Nikolay N. The Language of Russian Geographical Drawings of the Period Before 1700
  49. McElfresh, Earl B. Knowing Their Place: Military Maps, Slaveocracy, and the American Civil War
  50. McFarland, Brian J. Pocketing the Republic: The Cartographic Deconstruction of Samuel Augustus Mitchell's Pocket Maps for Travelers to Investigate the Social Order of the United States in the 1830s
  51. McNamara, Martha J. 'For want of a view of the towns and villages': Massachusetts Town Surveys (1794 & 1830) and New England Landscape Representation
  52. Michael, Bernardo A. Writing Spatial Histories of the Colonial State in South Asia: The Anglo-Gorkha War of 1814-16 and Revenue Surveys of the Nineteenth Century
  53. Mittman, Asa Simon. Mapping the Outer Edges of the World: The Marvels of the East and 'the Farthest Islands of the West'
  54. Mogel, Lize. Genius Loci: Interpreting Los Angeles Through Conceptual Maps
  55. Monmonier, Mark. Practical and Emblematic Roles of the American Polyconic Projection
  56. Nadal, Francesc, José Ignacio Muro, and Luis Urteaga. Local Structures and Cadastral Cartography in Spain: A Case Study of the Province of Barcelona, Catalonia (1848-1870) (The paper was presented by Francesc Nadal)
  57. Padrón, Ricardo. Mapping Barcelona in Don Quixote, Part II
  58. Palomino, Jean-François. Jean-Baptiste Franquelin, géographe du roi en Nouvelle-France
  59. Park, Sunyoung. Representation of Nationalism and Cartography: A Study of the Kanto (Jiandao) Dominium Problem in East Asia
  60. Pedley, Mary Sponberg. Two Maps of Boston Harbour on the Eve of Revolution (1775-1776): A French Connection
  61. Phillips, A. D. M. The Local Market for the Late Seventeenth-Century Printed County Map in England: The Subscribers to Gregory King's Map of Staffordshire, 1679-81
  62. Pramono, Albertus Hadi. The Search for Emptiable Spaces: The History of Mapping and Resource Politics in Indonesia
  63. Reisz T. Csaba. Colleagues, Contributors, Sponsors, and Supporters: How Many People Took Part in the Making of John Lipszky's General Map of Hungary (1804-1810)? (The paper was read by Zsolt Török in the absence of the author)
  64. Ross, Elizabeth. Tradition and Experience in Erhard Reuwich's 'Map of the Holy Land with View of Jerusalem'
  65. Roxburgh, David J. Visualizations of Holy Places in Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Manuscript Sources
  66. Rupert, Linda M. The Phantom Walls of Charlestown, 1739
  67. Sanford, Rhonda Lemke. Cartographic Fantasies: The Body and the Map in Literature
  68. Schnall, Uwe. The Early Cartae marinae and Practical Navigation (*)
  69. Selwood, Jan. Cartography and the Modern State in Meiji Japan
  70. Sen, Arijit. Mapping Immigrant Homeland in America: Cartographic and Cognitive Imaginations of the Indian Nation in Diaspora in the 1920s
  71. Shin, Leo K. Mapping the Frontier in Late Imperial China
  72. Sills, Adam. Daniel Defoe and the Limits to the Market
  73. Steward, Harry. The Literary Surveyor: Verne and Meridiana
  74. Terkla, Dan. Eloquent Stones near the Saint's Bones: The Placement and Purpose of the Hereford Mappa Mundi (title of summary in program:Patronage, Translatio, and Curiositas: The Hereford Mappa Mundi as Pilgrimage Attraction)
  75. Watelet, Marcel. Cartographie et culture technique: l'univers graphique des ingénieurs hydrauliciens en Europe (1804-1830)
  76. Watson, Ruth. Material Projections: Another Map of the World
  77. Woodward, David. Did John Donne Have a Map in Mind in Hymn to God, My God, in My Sickness?
  78. Yonemoto, Marcia. Power and Politics in the Administrative Mapping of Early Modern Japan
  79. York, Laura. Interpreting Early Modern Cartographic Texts: Comparing French and Dutch Cultural Understandings of the Map
  80. Zinchuk, Liudmila. Foreign Sources of Russian Scientific Cartography
(*) = abstract printed in the Addenda to the Program

Papers not read, but abstract printed in the program

  1. Bernal-García, María Elena. The 1581 Map of Cholula: A Conflation of Indigenous and European Conceptions of Time and Space
  2. Cain, Mead T. Economic Aspects of Map Production and Publishing in Early Victorian England: Evidence from the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge
  3. García-Zambrano, Angel Julián. Replacement of Native Mesoamerican Ritualized Perceptions of the Landscape by Colonial Cartographic Conventions.
  4. Lee, Jee Sun E. Belated Seduction: Cartographic Production and the Great Han Empire
  5. Ramírez, Marcelo. The Aristotelian-Ptolemaic Concept of Place in the Cartographic Construction of the New World.
  6. Zizi, Zehor. The Royal Society and the Mapping of Eighteenth-Century Barbary: Thomas Shaw (1692?-1751) D.D., M.R.S.

Workshops 20th ICHC

Historical Maps and Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
Organizer and presenter: Anne Kelly Knowles, Middlebury College, Vermont

This one-hour workshop presented a wide range of examples of how historical scholars in various disciplines are currently using geographic information systems (GIS) to examine historical maps, extract information from them, and use them as the basis for historical research. It emphasized that GIS technology is not always necessary and sometimes may actually be an obstacle to acquiring or representing geographic information. Because of the ability of GIS to manage and analyze very large geospatial databases, however, it can be an excellent tool for tackling complex historical issues, such as the relative significance of human actions versus environmental conditions in causing the American Dust Bowl of the 1930s. The workshop then considered issues arising from the use of GIS for history. The presenter used her GIS exploration of what Robert E. Lee could and could not see at Gettysburg, a key battle in the American Civil War, to illustrate several of workshop's key points.

(Anne Kelly Knowles)

Historical Maps and the Internet
Organizer: Anne Godlewska, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario
Papers presented (summaries on-line):

  1. Godlewska, Anne. The web-based atlas of Napoleonic cartography of Italy (
  2. Lovison-Golob, Lucia. Bringing Historical GIS over the Web to Students.
  3. Patricia Alkhoven. Maps and 3D reconstructions of cities (read by Paul van den Brink)

Integrating Historical Maps Into Primary Education (K-12, Ages 5-18)
Organizer: Yolanda Theunissen.

Report will follow a.s.a.p.

Poster Presentations 20th ICHC

  1. Aliphat, Mario M., and Laura Caso Barrera. The Colonial Mapping of the Southern Maya Lowlands
  2. Bobrik, Gustavo C. Mapping the Glaciers
  3. Borges, Maria Eliza Linhares. L'Atlas de l'Empire du Brésil (1868): cartes, imagerie et conscience national
  4. Boston Map Society. The Boston Map Society
  5. Bracke, Wouter. Le projet du dictionnaire des arpenteurs aux Pays-Bas méridionaux (XIV-XVIII siècles)
  6. Brancaforte, Elio. The Representation of the Caspian Sea in Early Modern Cartography: The Case of Adam Olearius, 1647
  7. Butler, Diane. Etching Africans: The 1608 Blaeu Wall Map of Africa
  8. Clarke, Joyce E. A Window on to the New World: The Santa Cruz Map
  9. Cormier, Marc A. Cartographie des îles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon du XVIe au XIXe siècle: toponymie et représentation variées d'une balise cartographique de la côte atlantique (available on line)
  10. Davies, Surekha. Commodities and Cornucopiae: Amerindians and Material Wealth in European Maps, ca. 1550-1700
  11. Dulce de Faria, Maria. Maps from the Pedro de Angelis Collection in the National Library of Brazil
  12. Explokart staff. EXPLOKART, University of Utrecht
  13. Frumin, Mitia. Russian Mapping Activities in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Late Eighteenth Century
  14. Fürst-Bjeliš, Borna, and Sanja Lozic. The Grimani Cadastral Survey (Eighteenth-Century): Tracing Environmental Change in Central Dalmatia, Croatia
  15. Furtado, Júnia Ferreira. Gold and Diamond Cartography in Brazil in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
  16. Gogate, Prasad, and B. Arunachalam: Native Indian Antique Maps of Gujarat (The poster was presented by Prasad Gogate)
  17. Hasegawa Koji. Urbanization and Tourism Projected on Panoramic Maps in Modern Japan
  18. History of Cartgraphy Project. The History of Cartography Project
  19. Hutchinson, Gillian. A 1690 Manuscript Map of Nouvelle France in the Collection of the National Maritime Museum, UK
  20. Irás, Krisztina. Linschoten's India Orientalis and its Portuguese Cartographical Sources
  21. Iuliano, Marco. Melchior Lorichs's View of Constantinople (1559): Cartography and Urban History
  22. Johnson, Jenny Marie, and Nicholas R. Chrisman. Demarcating Territorial Acquisitions: Examining the Changing Story of the History of the United States
  23. Koepp, Donna P. and Vida Margaitis. Mapping a Nation
  24. Krogt, Peter van der, and Ferjan Ormeling. A Map Use Manual from 1554
  25. Lamb, Blaine P. Military Map Makers in a Land of Gold: California, 1848-1849
  26. Macle, Jorge. Mariano Carlés y Casadevall and the Archetype of the Cartography of an Age
  27. Mogel, Lize. Public Green
  28. Mosher, Rosemary. Georeferencing Map States Using Plate Fingerprints and GIS Technologies
  29. Parmentier, Jan, Ann Heirman, and Paolo De Troia. Sambiasi: A Missing Link in Western Map Making in China? (The poster was presented by Jan Parmentier and Paolo De Troia)
  30. Pflederer, Richard. The John Hunt Map and the Mystery of Popham Colony, Maine
  31. Piribeck, Jan, Gary Green, and Chris Hoffmann. TRANSECT: The Back Cove Project
  32. Pollitt, Frances. Mapping the Northeast Boundary of the United States, 1792-1843
  33. Raleigh, James T., and Henry Walling. Maps of the Battle of Monmouth (New Jersey, North America), June 28th, 1778 and Roads through New Jersey and the Battle of Monmouth, June 1778
  34. Rizzo, Gerald J. Lake Debo: An African Beacon Through the Ages
  35. Romanova, Olga. The Image of Yakutia's Territory on Drawings and Maps of the Seventeenth Century (This poster was presented by Liudmila Zinchuk in the absence of the author)
  36. Shingiray, Irina. Imagining the Shadow Empire: The Early Abbasid Geographic Conceptualization of the Nomadic Khazar State
  37. Solar, Renata, and Dalibor Radovan. Hyperlinked Promenade through the Historical Geolocation, Toponymy, and Appearance of Slovenian Towns
  38. Török, Zsolt. The End of Geographical Dreams: Samuel Mikoviny (1700-1750) and the Beginnings of the Scientific Mapping of Hungary
  39. Unverhau, Dagmar. The Cold War and its Impact on Cartography: One Example from the Former German Democratic Republic
  40. Van Ee, Patricia Molen. Sellers and Van Ee 25 Years Later
  41. Washington Map Society. The Washington Map Society

ISCEM meeting

Report will follow a.s.a.p.

ICA Session Teaching the History of Cartography VI

The ICA Commissions on the History of Cartography and on Education and Training had a joint session on Teaching the History of Cartography at Harvard University's Memorial Hall on June 14, 2003. Thanks to the local organizers of the international Conference on the History of Cartography, David Cobb and Matthew Edney, this prestigious venue had been secured. With about 50 participants the session had the following contributions:

  1. Krogt, Peter van der (Utrecht University). The making of the new Atlantes Neerlandici: guidelines for making an atlas bibliography
  2. Moser, Robert (University of Georgia, Atlanta). The contribution of Jaime Cortesão to teaching the history of cartography in Brazil and Beyond
  3. Alkhoven, Patricia (Royal Library, The Hague). Searching for images of cartography: a short overview of portals and types of image databases, based on Dutch examples (read by Paul van den Brink)
  4. Akerman, James (Herman Dunlop Smith Centre, Newberry Library, Chicago). Historic maps in K12 classrooms, a resource for teaching the geographical dimensions of American history.
The common denominator of these contributions was their educational aspect: Peter van der Krogt also used volunteers for collecting the required bibliographical data and these volunteers needed to be trained first. Jaime Cortesão was the first to provide formal courses on the history of cartography in Latin America. Patricia Alkhoven presented the Dutch websites selected as an educational resource, and this was also the central theme of James Akerman. The educational programme developed by the Herman Dunlop Smith Centre for the History of Cartography at the Newberry Library in Chicago really got the audience excited, and its impact would not only boost interest in the history of cartography in high schools but in cartography at large as well.
The website is from October 1 2003 available from the Newberry website
Tony Campbell, retired curator of the Map Room at the British Library, had developed a website for teachers in the history of cartography ( ) and he shortly discussed its objectives during the session.
The session chair, Ferjan Ormeling, indicated that in 2005, probably on July 1, a similar session on Teaching the History of Cartography would be organized in Budapest, Hungary, at the Cartographic Institute of the Eötvös Lorand University
(Ferjan Ormeling)


There were five books distributed free among the participants:
  1. Alex Krieger and David Cobb with Amy Turner (ed.), Mapping Boston. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2001. 278 pp. A donation of Norman B. Leventhal, who signed each individual book.

    The Osher Library Associates donated:

  2. James E. Mooney, Maps, Globes, Atlases and Geographies Through The Year 1800: The Eleanor Houston and Lawrence M.C. Smith Cartographic Collection at the Smith Center for Cartographic Education, University of Southern Maine, Foreword by Kenneth Nebenzahl, Introduction by Philip Chadwick Foster Smith. Portland, Maine: University of Southern Maine, 1988. 145 pp.
  3. The Cartographic Collections: The Harold L. and Peggy L. Osher Collection [and] The Lawrence M.C. and Eleanor Houston Smith Collection. Portland, Maine: University of Southern Maine, 1993. 16 pp.
  4. Matthew H. Edney and Irwin D. Novak (ed.), Reading the World Map: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Pieter van den Keere's Map, Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Geographica ac Hydrographica Tabula (Amsterdam, 1608/36). Portland, Maine: Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education, University of Southern Maine, 2001. (Osher Library Associates, Occasional Publication; No. 1). 41 pp.
  5. Donald S. Johnson, Charting Neptune's Realm: From Classical Mythology to Satellite Imagery, Exhibition catalog. April 4, 2000 to January 11, 2001. Portland, Maine: Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education, University of Southern Maine, [2000]. (Osher Library Associates, Occasional Publication; No. 2). 56 pp.


  1. Cartographica Helvetica 28 (Juli 2003): 42-43 (Hans-Uli Feldmann).
  2. Imago Mundi 54,1 (2004): 87-93 (Karen S. Cook).

© 1995-2003 Idea and text 1964-95: Douglas Sims; text 1997- and web version: Peter van der Krogt